Study offers clues to emotional eating

I wouldn’t say that I am an emotional eater…unless you consider how grumpy I get when there is nothing sweet in the house! This study may indeed offer some insights to why we take such solace in junk foods.

(Health.com) — Anyone who’s sought solace in pizza or a pint of ice cream knows that food can be comforting. But experts still don’t know exactly why we gravitate toward fatty or sugary foods when we’re feeling down, or how those foods affect our emotions.

Taste and the pleasant memories associated with junk foods surely play a role, but that may be only part of the story. According to a small new study, hormones in our stomachs appear to communicate directly with our brains, independent of any feelings we have about a particular food.

Most research on food and emotion has looked at the overall experience of eating — the tastes, smells, and textures, in addition to nutrients. In this study, however, the researchers took that subjective experience off the table by “feeding” the volunteers through an unmarked stomach tube.

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Even in this artificial environment, saturated fat appeared to fend off negative emotions. The study volunteers were more upbeat after listening to sad music and seeing sad faces if their bellies were full of saturated fat versus a simple saline solution, which suggests that emotional eating operates on a biological as well as psychological level, researchers say.

The study is among the first to show that the effect of food on mood is “really independent of pleasant stimuli,” says Giovanni Cizza, M.D., an obesity and neuroendocrinology researcher at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, in Bethesda, Maryland, who was not involved in the study. “It is even more rooted in our biology.”

The biological mechanism at work is still unclear, but the findings suggest that the stomach may influence the brain by releasing hormones, says Lukas Van Oudenhove, M.D., one of the study authors and a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Leuven, in Belgium.

Health.com: Foods that boost your mood

The deep-seated connection between our stomachs and our brains helped keep humans alive when food was scarce (as it was during most of human history), but it may have outlived its usefulness and may be contributing to modern health problems such as obesity, Van Oudenhove adds.

“Evolution has made every aspect of feeding as rewarding as possible,” he says. “These days it may not be a good thing anymore. When food is available anywhere, then it may be a bad thing, leading to obesity or eating disorders in some people.”

The study drives home just how difficult it can be to eat healthy and resist so-called emotional eating in our stressful world, says Susan Albers, Psy.D., a psychologist at the Cleveland Clinic and the author of “50 Ways to Soothe Yourself Without Food.”

“Given the strong soothing effect of food on a biological level, we have to work even harder to find ways to soothe and comfort ourselves without calories,” Albers says. “This is important in the long run for managing your weight, improving your self-esteem, and protecting your overall health.”

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The study, which appears in the August issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, included 12 healthy, normal-weight volunteers.

Van Oudenhove and his colleagues infused one of two “meals” into the stomachs of the volunteers: a solution of saturated fatty acids, or a saline control solution. (The researchers used a fat-based solution because comfort foods are often fatty, and because they were familiar with the brain’s response to the solution from earlier research.)

After the feeding, the researchers induced feelings of sadness in the volunteers by playing sad classical music and showing them images of faces with sad expressions — techniques that have proven to be downers in previous experiments.

Brief mood surveys administered throughout the experiment revealed that the participants found the sad music considerably more depressing after receiving the saline solution than after the fat solution.

Health.com: Why we eat junk food when we’re stressed and how to stop

Functional MRI brain scans taken during the experiment echoed these findings: Compared to the saline solution, the fatty solution appeared to dampen activity in parts of the brain that are involved in sadness and that responded to the gloomy music.

The fleeting feelings of sadness experienced by the study volunteers pale in comparison to some of the emotions that people try to address with food in real life, Albers says. “Think about how this compares to some real-world problems people face, like illness, loss of a job, or a divorce,” she says. “We are often under a constant state of stress.”

Therapy or other treatments that “teach people how to deal with strong emotions would likely…help people improve their eating habits,” she says.

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In an editorial accompanying the study, Cizza and a colleague at the NIDDK say that the “most important” question raised by the study is whether obese people respond to fatty foods in the same way as the normal-weight volunteers.

For instance, he says, the brains of obese people may resist soothing signals from the gut more strongly than the brains of leaner people.

But there’s nothing wrong with occasionally eating unhealthy comfort food, Cizza adds.

“Evolution has provided us with, if you wish, an over-the-counter anti-anxiety or anti-sadness product,” he says. “Maybe if you’re sad and you feel like that chocolate could help you, go for it. Don’t feel too guilty, but try to limit what you eat and maybe later cut down on something else.”

Copyright Health Magazine 2010

 

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Where’s the FAT?

I came across this interesting article today. Thought i’d share it here.

When you’re losing weight, where does the fat go?

By Madison Park, CNN

(CNN) — Multiple chins, bulging tummies and flabby arms: It’s easy to see where fat accumulates on the body.

When a person starts losing weight, where does the fat go? And what parts of the body can you expect to see results?

Headlines from fitness magazines promise exercises to blast away belly fat and activities to spot-reduce flab. The scientific evidence, unfortunately, doesn’t back those sexy headlines.

Here are three things to know about weight-loss and body fat.

You can’t change your shape, just your size.

You can’t cherry-pick where you shed fat; weight loss doesn’t work like a point-and-shoot.

MRIs, CT scans and dexa scans, which use X-ray beams to measure body composition, show no evidence for spot reduction.

“Basically, when we lose weight, we lose weight all over in exactly the proportion that’s distributed throughout our body,” said Susan Fried, director of the Boston Obesity and Nutrition Research Center at the Boston University School of Medicine.  read the rest here

Here’s the part that most struck me from the article

Humans carry about 10 billion to 30 billion fat cells. People who are obese can have up to 100 billion.

“If anyone of us overeats long and hard enough, we can increase the number of fat cells in our body,” Fried said. “When we lose weight, we don’t lose the number of fat cells.”

The size of the cells shrinks, but the capacity to expand is always there.

The basic truth seems to be that once you’ve expanded your fat cell count, they’re with you for life and ready to pop back to full size at any moment. It’s a sad sad truth!

 

 

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Why do they always suggest Fruit?

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Taste Matters

I came to a startling realization this week. Satisfaction rules my diet! On Monday, I had a high calorie lunch from one of my favorite sandwich shops. As you can see from the nutritional chart, the sandwich alone has 700 calories. I did drink a coke Zero and skipped the chips. Still my lunch at 1:00 pm was 700 calories.

For dinner I had a pork chop, grilled, some broccoli and other veggies grilled and a twice baked potato. I ate around 6:30 or 7 pm. My dinner was less and satisfying! It just didn’t taste good to me. I didn’t think the items complemented each other and well over all I was dis-satisfied with my dinner.

What I found was that I was immediately thinking about a snack. Some satisfying taste to offer my demanding taste buds. Unfortunately, I gave in to the demanding tongue sensors and ate Oreos.

The lesson for me is that I need to have a satisfying dining experience, with pleasing flavor. It can not just be about eating enough.

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Americans Run on Junk Foods

I read a story today about weight gain in rats and how rats fed a ‘typical American diet’ gained more wait than rats fed good old fashion lard. It has given me great pause! Here’s the story….

Rats fed a snack-based diet of highly palatable, energy-dense foods gained more weight, had more tissue inflammation, and were intolerant to glucose and insulin (warning signs of diabetes) than rats whose diets were high fat from lard. The study is featured on the cover of this month’s issue of the journal Obesity.

“Obesity has reached epidemic levels in the United States,” says Liza Makowski, assistant professor of nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hilland the study’s senior author. “These findings provide us with a better animal model to help explore what factors are contributing most to this dangerous trend, and what strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity will be most successful.”

Using obese rats in laboratory experiments has been a common practice for decades, but rodents are typically made obese on manufactured lard-based, high-fat diets, Makowski notes. Her team showed that feeding the rats a diet that more closely resembles a typical American diet filled with snacks—known as the “cafeteria diet,” or CAF—revealed even more severe risks and emphasized the potentially harmful nature of excessive snacking.

“Although we can’t pinpoint what component of these snacks is causing these pre-diabetes conditions, we show that the ‘cafeteria diet’ provides a more severe animal model of metabolic syndrome than lard-based high-fat diets,” she says.

Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of factors that increase a person’s risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and Type 2 diabetes.

“The rapid gain in weight, extensive obesity, and multiorgan dysfunctions observed in the CAF model more closely reflect what is happening to humans who eat these snack foods regularly,” Makowski says.

The researchers note that rats fed the tasty, highly palatable cafeteria diet ate more food—about 30 percent more calories—than those eating high-fat or high-sugar diets.

“By the second week, rats on the lard-based, high-fat diet actually ate less, dropping their caloric intake to the same intake as rats on a standard, or healthy, diet,” Makowski says. “However, the CAF-fed rats continued to eat more, and gained almost double the weight of rats on the standard diet.”

Researchers from Vanderbilt University, Duke University, and Indiana University contributed to the study.

On Monday of this week, I had my own realization about myself and food taste and eating satisfaction. (I’ll post my insights tomorrow)

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When the Cookies WONT Shut UP

This morning my blood sugar was 133. Not my best number but not my worst. I am pretty happy about this past weekend. I went for a walk on the beach yesterday (Sunday) and this morning I walked in my neighborhood. I didn’t walk far or necessarily fast but I was moving and it’s better than nothing 🙂

If you are a regular reader of my main blog The Outrageous Experiment, then you probably know I play fantasy football and baseball. It is no secret that this time of year, Girl Scout Cookies are available. Which begs the question, who doesn’t love Girl Scout Cookies? Who ever it is, it is NOT me! I absolutely love Thin Mints, and the Peanut Butter cookies and the Lemon Cookies and …..OK I just love them ALL!

So a fantasy Girl Scout Cookie league would suit me perfectly!

Seriously, sweets are a huge draw for me. I LOVE them! And it is painful to miss out on the ‘special’ sweets of life. I end up doing things like buying 3 boxes of Girl Scout Cookies and eating them all (it was over a period of 2 weeks). In order to try to not feel like I am missing out on the ‘good’ (read sweets) in life, I’ve decided I can allow myself to eat the things I love….but only on Sundays and only in moderation.

I’ll let you know how that works for me.

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